Stand Up

Stand-up fighting (or stand-up) is hand-to-hand combat that takes place while the combatants are in a standing position. The term is commonly used in mixed martial arts and combat sports to designate the set of techniques employed from a standing position, as opposed to techniques employed in ground fighting. Stand-up fighting that takes place while the combatants are grappling each other is referred to as clinch fighting, and has its separate article.

Techniques used in stand-up fighting include various strikes or blocking techniques, either with parts of the body, or with mêlée weapons. Essential aspects of stand-up fighting include striking combinations, with the aim of striking to incapacitate or injure the opponent. Mixed Martial arts and combat sports that emphasize stand-up fighting include boxing, escrima, judo, karate, kendo, kickboxing, kung fu, muay thai, savate, fistfighting, silat and taekwondo and more.

Clinch fighting (also referred to as clinch work) is the part of stand-up fighting where the combatants are grappling in a clinch, typically using clinch holds. Clinching the opponent can be used to eliminate the opponent’s effective usage of some kicks, punches, and mêlée weapons. The clinch can also be used as a medium to switch from stand-up fighting to ground fighting by using takedowns, throws or sweeps. Clinch fighting is emphasized in Greco-Roman Wrestling, Freestyle Wrestling, Catch wrestling, Shoot wrestling, Judo, Mixed martial arts, San Shou, Muay Thai, Kun Khmer, Kampfringen, Sambo and Sumo.

Clinch fighting is the primary focus of many combat sports such as Judo and it is also a fundamental part of Amateur Wrestling, Sambo, Muay Thai and Mixed martial arts. The nature of the clinch is fighting in each sport depends on the rules involved. Muay Thai, Kun Khmer put much emphasis on strikes from the clinch, while Judo focuses on throws. The rule common to all these forms is the allowance for the grappling necessary to form a clinch. Others combat sports like Boxing or Taekwondo only allow clinching for a short time or do not allow it at all. If clinching is disallowed, the clinching fighter will be issued a warning, or the referee will restart the fight from a distance.

The clinch is a powerful tool for grapplers to advance into a dominant position in ground fighting, or is used for scoring points or winning a match such as a grand amplitude throw in Amateur Wrestling or an ippon in Judo. The type of techniques employed are heavily dependent on whether or not the participants are wearing clothing heavy enough to be grabbed and used to gain leverage or unbalance them to set up throws. In competitive environments examples of such clothing would be the Judogi, Brazilian Jiu Jitsu gi or the Kurtka.
In competition where such clothing is being worn (almost exclusively referred to as a gi) there is a strong emphasis on grip fighting where the fighters will attempt to gain a dominant hold on the opponent’s gi to unbalance and throw them. Examples of such competition would be Judo, Sambo or some Brazilian Jiu Jitsu competitions although in BJJ there is frequently a division for both gi and no-gi competition.
In no-gi competition getting double underhooks is generally considered advantageous, as the position can be used to perform throws or takedowns. Being behind the opponent in such a position is known as getting the back, and is generally considered even more advantageous, since it is harder for the opponent to defend from that position. A typical example of a technique that can be performed from this position is the suplex.

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